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This study used a national probability survey of 2, adult men. Among men 15—49 years old, the prevalence of FSW contacts last year was 4. In urban areas, the men most at risk for FSW were high income, often traveled, engaged in business entertaining, ages 25—39, and had early sex histories. Additional efforts are needed for high income men in urban areas, and on consistent condom use with FSW. The control of human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections STIs is a significant challenge in China, with infection increasingly transmitted through heterosexual contact, including wives infected by husbands who visit female sex workers FSWs [ 1 , 2 ].
Information about national levels of infection and significant risk groups is limited by a scarcity of studies, many of which are based on convenience samples [ 3 — 7 ]. Some descriptive studies suggest high risk among high-income men, including those who use sex for business networking [ 8 — 10 ].
Other studies have examined higher risks among rural-to-urban migrant men [ 11 , 12 ]. The risk for other types of partners remains uncertain. This study moves toward firmer answers for some of these questions with the use of a nationally representative survey of adult men. The Sexuality Survey of China used a stratified, multistage cluster sample [ 13 ]. In each of the urban and rural strata, official administrative units were selected with probability proportional to size, in which larger administrative units were more likely to be picked on the basis of a random number generator.
Sampling proceeded through the following stages: 1 In the urban stratum, 75 primary sampling units PSUs were selected from a list that included all urban districts in larger cities as well as whole towns and small cities.
From all rural counties, 47 counties were picked. In urban neighborhoods lacking a complete register of migrants, the list of residents was supplemented by local registration officials providing both an estimate of the number of unregistered migrants and sites peddlers, small stores, and construction sites where migrants worked.